Skip to main content

Full text of "The crosses of Monmouthshire"

See other formats


THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



THE CROSSES 



OF 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 



BY 



Elizabeth 'Harcourt Mitchell. 



^Iciantelti IPrititeb for 
(C,aevleoii antf ^on>noutl)«i)ici! S^ntliiuacian ^«ociat{oi|. 



..il. i.i.wi_ rv x ,^iy.>.j. cOMMEKClAL-Sl., NKWl'Okl. 
1893- 



I1 '■ 
V I 



THE CROSSES 



OF 



MONMOUTHSHIRE 



BY 



Elizabeth Harcourt Mitchell. 



Vvivately ^llriiiteb fov 
®aevUo») aixb iMoiimoutljaljice Autlquoviat? Association, 

HV 

MULLOCK s. SONS, COMMEKCIAL-Sl., NKWl'OKT. 
1893- 



-3 I ^ 



TO THE MEMORY 



OF 



MY FATHER, 



N ^-v 

U JOHN ETHEf^lNGTON WELCH f^OLLS, Esq. 

OF 

THE JHENDF^E, 

IN COMPLIANCE WITH WHOSE WISH THIS WORK 
WAS UNDERTAKEN. 



629809 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 





PAGE 


Introductiou 


1 


Abergavenny Deanery, North West. 


Cwm-y-oy 


6 


Grosmont 


6 


Llanddewi Ehydderch 


6 


Llanddevvi Skyrrid 


7 


Llanfoist 


7 


Llangattock Lingoed 


7 


Llantilio Pertholey 


7 


Llanvaplny . 


8 


Llanvetheriue 


8 


Llanweuarth Citia 


8 


Old Uastle 


8 



Abergavknny Deaneky, Blaenau Gwent. 



Bedwellty . . 


9 


Llanhilleth 


9 


Trevethin 


9 


Abergavenny Deanery, South West. 


Bettws Newydd . . 


10 


Bryngwyn . . 


10 


Goytrey . . . . 


'10 


Kemeys Commauder 


10 


Llanartli 


11 


Llangattock-jiixta-Usk .. 


11 


Llanover 


11 


Llanvair Kilgedin 


11 


Llanflhangel-j uxta-Usk 


12 


Mamhilad . . 


12 


Llausaiutli'raed 


12 


Trostrey 


12 



Abekgavenny Deanery, East. 



Tregare 

Llautilio Cresseney 

Cwmcarvon 

Wonastow 

Peurhos 

Dingestow . . 

Dixton 

Llangattock-Vibon-Avel 

Mitchel Troy 

Eockiield 



PAGE. 

13 
13 
13 
14 
14 
15 
15 
15 
15 
16 



Itton . . 
Matherne 
Pen terry 



Netherwent Deaneky, East. 



17 
17 
17 



Nethekwent Deaneky, Middle. 



Caerwent 

Penhow 

Sudbrook .. . 

Llanvihangel Rogiet 

Eedwick 

Undy . . 

Magor 

Portskewett 

S. Bride's .. 



18 
18 
19 
19 
19 
20 
20 
20 
21 



Netheuwen' 



r Deansuy, West. 



Bishton 
Caerloon 
Kemeys Inferior 
Llanhenog . . 
Llanwern 
Llanfrechfa 
Wilcriuk 
Goldcliff . . 



22 
22 
22 
23 
23 
23 
23 
24 



UsK Deanery, Easi. 





PAGE 


Llandenny 


25 


Llanishen . . 


25 


Llangovan 


26 


Llanfihangel Tor-j'-Mynydd 


26 


Kilgwrrwg 


26 


Wolves Newtou 


26 


Pen-y-Clawdd 


27 


TreUeck 


27 


Penalt 


27 


Eaglau 


27 



UsK Deaneky, West. 



Ghveniesney 

Llanddewi-Vach 

Llangibby 

Llantrissent 

Tredunnock 

Usk 



28 
28 
28 
28 
29 
29 



Newport Deanery. 



Henllys 

Llanvihangel-Llantamam 

Marshfield 

S. Bride's, Wentloog . . 

S. Mellon's 

Machen 

Eisca . . 

Bedwas 



30 
30 
30 
30 
31 
31 
31 
31 



The Wayside Ceobbes o> Monmouthshike. 



Market Cross, Gro&mont 

Stow Hill, Newport 

Monmoutli 

Abergavenny 

Magor 



32 
32 
32 
33 
33 



Vlll. 



The Wayside Ckosses of Monmouthshire. — Cont. 





PAGE 


Eedwick 


33 


Penalt 


34 


Tintern Parva 


34 


Cross Kyrig 


34 


Cross Careg 


35 


Cross Las 


35 


Cross Llwydd 


35 


Eockfield 


36 


Trelleck Stone 


36 


Cross Vaen 


36 


The May-pole 


37 


Head of Cross at the Pant . . 


37 


Skeufrith Wayside Cross and Bridge 


37 


Caldicot 


38 


Cross Philip Jack 


38 


Vemey Cross 


38 


Cross Vane 


39 


Cwmcarvan 


39 



Restokeu Crosses. 



Llaufrechfa ■ 
Mou mouth 
Llano-ua 



40 
40 
41 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Abergavenuy Deanery, North West 


. , opposite page 


6 


11 11 


Blaenau Gwent . . 








9 


)) >i 


South West 


• • ) 






10 


)) n 


East 








13 


Netherwent Deanery, 


East 
Middle 








17 

1» 


n JJ 


Middle 








20 


yy " 


West 








22 


Usk Deanery, East 


. . 








•26 


West 


. . 








28 


Newport Deanery 










.•30 


Wayside Crosses 


. > 








32 


IJ n 










36 


Eestored Crosses . . 


. . 








40 



INTRODUCTION 



The crosses of Monmouthshire are neither so numerous as 
those of Cornwall, nor so beautiful as the best examjjles in 
Glamorganshire and Gloucestershire, yet they possess an 
interest of their own and in the study of their remains nuich 
may be learnt and luucli is to be admired. 1 have divided 
this W(jrk into two portions ; the first contains all the 
churchyard crosses I have been able to discover, the latter 
the wayside crosses I have succeeded to the best of my 
ability in identifying. In the part containing the wayside 
crosses it is probable that there are some inaccuracies owing 
to the lapse of time and the death of })ersons acquainted 
with local traditions. In nearly every case the site of each 
cross has been pei-sonally visited, and in some of the 
churchyards tlie base of the cross has been dug out of the 
turf. In the ten rural deaneries of the Archdeaconry of 
Monmouth there exist remains of seventy-nine churchyard 
crosses. These are very unequally distributed, the ancient 
and agricultural deaneries having a great many : the modern 
and manufacturing ones, such as Abergavenny Blaenau 
Gwent, very few. Some of the bases, shafts, and remains 
are extremely handsome : notably Mitchel Troy, Bettws 
Ncwydd, Raglan, Bedwas, and Undy. Some of them are 
little more than square stones, or a piece of turf marking 
the site. In many instances trees have been planted where 
the old crosses stood, and it is very regrettable that in some 
places the vegetation has been allowed to intertwine and 
entangle the handsome base and steps to such an extent as 



to render restoration impossible. The old chm-cliyard cross 
belonged to the old Church life, and as the old Church life 
revives amongst ourselves it is to be hoped that the 
churchyard cross will again form one of its holy and 
picturesque features. In ancient days people were anxious 
to be buried near it, it fcjrmed the goal of processions, and 
the words of life were often heard from its steps, whilst on 
festival days it was hung with garlands. It had its secular 
uses too ; bargains were struck beneath it and engagements 
so made were considered binding. The Parish clerk 
proclaimed the news f i*om its steps after the morning service 
when pt)sts were few and far between, and there were no 
newspapers ; and tlie lowest step, so often hollowed under- 
neath, shows its emjjloyment as a seat for the village elders. 
A little attention to detail wU in many instances give us 
the approximate date of these crosses. The Rev. Elias Owen 
in his " Old Stone Crosses of the Vale of Clwyd" tells us that 
tapering octagonal shafts with scjuare broaches belong to 
the fourteenth century. We have many of these. In fact 
there seems to have been quite a rage for cross building at 
that time. The ballilower ornament at Mitchel Troy and 
Bedwas speak of the same period, whilst the line work of 
Undy shaft and the shape of the head of the Caerwent 
cross seem to speak to us of the fifteenth century. In some 
places the ribs and mouldings of the base tell us of the 
same period of building, almost of the same architect. In 
a few instances the bases of wayside crosses have been 
moved into churchyards for safety : these require to be 
carefully noted and distinguished, or they may be mistaken 
for the original churchyard crosses. In all cases the history 
of each stone should be investigated. The destruction of 
crosses in and near populous })laces and towns has been 
alas ! thorough and complete. Usk, Monmouth, Newport, 
Chepstow, Abergavenny, are one and all destitute of a 
handsome flight of steps, a carved base, or anything but 



the poorest remains where we have reason to believe that 
these towns were once rich in such reHcs. In out of the way 
places, on the contrary, very imposing fragments exist, and 
in some instances the head of the cross was merely knocked 
off (perhaps hidden,) to comply with the letter of the law. 

In Queen Elizabeth's days an attempt was made to get 
an order to destroy all the churchyard crosses, but that 
Sovereign would not sanction it. In 1643 however, the 
Puritans succeeded, and an order was issued for theii- 
destruction, and committees of magistrates were to be 
formed in every county to carry this out. Thus we owe 
the ruin of these sacred memorials, not to the wanton and 
temporary rage of Cromwell's soldiers as they scom-ed the 
country, but to the cool deliberate bigotry of the Parliament 
in London. In only one instance has a churchyard cross 
been left with its ancient head, at Kilgwrrwg, and tliis 
prolmbly because the iconoclasts could not get it off as the 
whole cross is very hard and cut out of one piece. It may 
have owed its mimunity to the fact of not being carved 
with figures. One wayside cross, Croes Llwydd, retains its 
ancient head, probalily because it had no figures, or perhaps 
a cavalier knight or squire ruled in that neighbourhood. 
In very few instances has a cross retained more than a small 
portion of its original shaft. All the restorations have been 
carried out according to modern ideas, with the exceptions 
of Pen-y-Clawdd and of Llanfrechfa churchyard crosses, 
which are not unpleasing in theii- attempt to reproduce the 
mediaeval spirit. 

The wayside crosses have been more difiicult to identify 
than the chm-chyard, and in many cases the name has 
survived whilst the thing has gone. In Monmouthshire 
there are about thirty known sites : of these about seventeen 
have some trace of a stone. Some remains are very 
interesting though not so nmch so as those in Cornwall. 
It is more tlian probable that there are many more mikuown 



to the antiquaiy, but hidden away in corners of old paths 
and in field ways, and in the ditches that used to serve as 
roads. It is also likely that these crosses and also those in 
the churchyards were built upon the sites of others still more 
ancient. 

Pelliccia in his " Ecclesiastical Polity" writes thus of the 
extreme antiquity of wayside crosses : . " The ancients 
were accustomed to set up very high crosses in the public 
streets. Chrysostom tells us that this was the custom in 
his time at Constantinople and other places in the East. 
AVherefore Balsamon says : Holy images and crosses are 
set up by one who is thus disposed : and for Grod's. sake, 
and for the sake of piu'e faith towards His saints, we adore 
and salute holy things of this kind wherever they are 
erected. According to Eusebius this custom was first begun 
by Constantine the Great who, as he tells us, set up in aU 
places triumphal little colmims clearly marked with a cross. 
The Emperor did this that he might entii-ely eradicate 
every monument of Pagan religion ; f(_)r he ordered that 
crosses should be erected in all places where there was a 
Bivilia (a statue of the goddess who delivers from straj'ing 
from the paths) of the Romans, or a three headed Hermes 
of the Greeks, (Mercurius Triceps) which used in those 
times to stand in the public roads, and therefore, the 
endeavour which some are making to restore tliis ancient 
use, and to place crosses in the public roads is a design 
worthy of all j^i-aise ; it is but folly to say that this design 
is one wliich is forbidden by the laws of the Empei-or, for 
such objections to the ancient policy were nowhere made by 
him ; the Imperial laws merely forbid the indiscriminate 
erection of crosses, because fonnerly any spot of ground on 
which a cross was raised became the property of that Clim-ch 
to which the cross belonged." — Bellett's translaticm, p. 396. 

Before leaving the subject of wayside crosses, it may be 
well to refer to the custom of burying suicides *' at the 



cross roads." Of course such persons could not be laid in 
consecrated ground but it is fair to imagine that this 
practice was a merciful alternative. The suicide was 
forbidden bui'ial beneath the shadow of the churchyard 
cross but he was allowed a resting-place where the arms of 
the wayside cross stretched out, a fitting emblem of the 
mercy of Him who knoweth the sorrows and temptations of 
all hearts. 

I must mentif)n that the drawing of the Monmouth cross, 
the ]\Iaypolc ])ase, the head of the Pant cross, and of the old 
Bridge at Skenfrith are from photographs liy ]\Ir. Tudor 
Williams, photographer, of Monmouth. And in conclusion, 
I beg heartily to thank Mrs. Bagnall Oakeley for her 
drawings of Penalt churchyard cross and of the " resting 
stone " at Trelleeh ; the Rev. W. B. Oakeley for a sketch 
of Penalt wayside cross ; Miss Crawley of Bryngwyn for 
guidance and information concerning the wayside crosses 
in her neighbom-hood ; Mrs. Still for affording me 
facilities for drawing and examining the cross at Caerwent ; 
Mr. and Mrs. David Thomas for helping me in the vicinity 
of Llanweni ; the Rev. T. Pitt Eykyn for infoi-mation about 
Magor and Redwick ; the Rev. Watkin Davies for his help 
at Mathenie, without which I should never have found the 
base of the old cross under a pump ; the Rev. Mr. Morris of 
Llanvihangel Rogiet for much valuable information and 
kind hospitality ; and above all to my husband, Frank 
Johnstone Mitchell, F.S.A., who by his unwearied hel}} 
(especially in measurements) and his hearty spnpathy in 
the whole undertaking made the days spent in these 
investigations some of the happiest of my life. 



Elizabeth Hakcouk'I' MrrciiELL. 



Llanfrechfa Grange, 

Caerleon, 

1893. 



Abergavenny Deanery, North West. 



CWM-Y-OY. 

A broken shaft fixed in a base broached at the corners. 
Base, 3 feet square, 2 feet 10 inches high, on four shallow 
steps, rough and broken. On South side of Cwin-y-oy 
Church. 

In the garden of a neighbouring fann house, the stone 
crucifix to the right is shown as the head of the chui'chyard 
cross, but this is doubtful as it has nothing on the reverse 
side. It is more probably a gable cross or one that has 
been built into a wall. The figure has a curious crown, 
something in the shape of a Lombardic M, and the feet are 
tui'ned inwards. 



GROSMONT. 

A handsome broached octagonal base, 2 feet 6 inches high 
and 4 feet across ; bearing remains 4 feet 6 inches high 
of octagonal shaft, neatly broached. It stands on the North 
side of the Church. 



LLANDDEWI RHYDDERCH 

Has remains of a churchyard cross on the South side of 
Clhurcli. About 3 feet 6 inches of octagonal shaft broached, 
resting on a handsonie base 2 feet 1 inch high and 1 2 inches 
s(]uare, with corners ribbed and moulded. There are fom- 
steps, the lowest (12 feet square and 1 foot 4 inches high) 
is Ijevillcd, to serve for a seat. The whole is enveloped in 
a tangled mass of grass, ferns, and shrubs. 



<&^)twc^p$crb ^ro;5/e^,^l3e¥2«'<i^*vn5 l&^«ne¥^ yiovi])'<x)t^X 






fM 



CwhA-V-OY 




n. 







Hf^D OF CROSS 
A,T CWM-Y-OY 




CiROSMOMT 







LLA,NDDEWI RVIVDDERtH . LLANDDEWI SKVRRID, 



UUAHfOlST. 











1.1,/ivUVgTHERlNE 






OUDCASTLE . 



LLANDDEWI 8KYRRID. 
A churchyard cross at East end of Chm-ch. No steps, but 
a handsome octagonal base, 2 feet 3 inches wide and 1 foot 
7 inches high, broached and much w(jm. 9^ feet of shaft 
remain ; it is octagonal and broached. 



LLANFOIST. 
A handsome square base, broached and ribbed at the 
corners, 2 feet 2 inches high, and 3 feet square : standing 
on four steps of good hewn stone, the lower one bevilled. 
They are respectively 11 feet -4 inches, 8 feet 4 inches, 

6 feet 4 inches, and 4 feet 4 inches square ; and 1 foot 
3 inches, 10 inches, 9 inches, and 8 inches high. About 

7 feet of the ancient shaft remain. It stands on the South 
side of the Church. 



LLANGATTOCK LINGOED. 
Remains of a churchyard cross on the South side of Church, 
much dilapidated. Good base with corners moulded 
and ribbed, 2 feet 6 inches square and 1 foot 10 inches 
high. Standing on f om- steps, respectively 1 1 feet 5 inches, 
11 feet, 6 feet, and 4 feet square; and 1 foot 10 inches, 
8 inches, 8 inches, and 8 inches high. The lowest one is 
bevilled underneath. 



LLANTILIO PERTHOLEY. 
Base on South side of Church, 3 feet square, 2 feet 3 inches 
high : broached at the corners. About 8 inches of the shaft 
is left. It stands on three steps much broken, the lowest 
9 feet 6 inches square, and the whole is considerably 
weather worn. 



8 

LLANVAPLEY. 

A good l)ase, '-i feet scjuare and 2 feet 4 inches high, with 
corners ribbed and moulded in tlio usual manner. Four 
steps, the lowest (bevilled) 12 feet st^juare and 1 foot 4 inches 
high. They are much dilapidated and overgrown with a 
great quantity of herbage. On South side of Church. 



LLANVETHERINE. 

Base, -i feet 2 inches square and 2 feet S inches high, 
broached at corners. There are four stejis much worn Ijut 
handsome, the lowest is bevilled and is 11 feet 6 inches 
square. On South side of Church. 



LLANWENARTH CITRA. 

A handsome base, chamfered and broached, 3 feet stiuare 
and 1 foot 10 inches high, mounted on three large steps, 
11 feet 9 in.clies, 9 feet 4 inches and G feet inclics scjuare, 
and 13, 12, and 11 inches higli. They are (jf well-built 
smooth masonry. A few inches of the shaft remain. On 
South .side of Church. 



OLD CASTLE. 

Two steps on South side of Church, the lower one 
chamfered. Probably a third step once existed. The 
ujiper one is 8 feet scpiare and 8 inches high ; the lower 
10 feet square and 13 inches high. 










BEDWELLTY 







UAMHILLETH 




-v.."^'^ 



TREVETHIN 



<[}09 



Abergavenny Deanery, Blaenau Gwent. 



bp:dwellty. 

On the South side of the Church are three steps placed 
upon small rough stones and formed oi flags : tlie\' l)ear 
an ancient base broached and chamfered, 1 foot (> inches 
high, 1 foot U inches scjuare. The steps are U feet, 7 feet, 
and 4 feet G inches sipiare, and 1 foot 'S inches high. Pai't 
of the shaft has been recut and used to carry a sundial. 



LLANHILLETH. 

Part of an octagonal shaft, 1 foot 8 inches, with vcrv long 
bruaches, on square base deeply cut at the corners. It is 
at present on the North side of the Church, l)ut looks as if 
it had been moved. The base is 2 feet 4 inches square at 
the top and 1 foot 10 inches high. It has been placed 
upon a rough brick stand. 

Near it is the old Font, 15 inches l)y 14 s(juarc inside 
and 7 inches deep. 



TREVETHIN. 

On the West side of the Church opposite the tower stands 
a base and part of the sliaft of the ancient churchyard 
cross, mounted upon one old step. The shaft is octagonal, 
the base broached and square with i-ibs at the corners. 
2 feet 6 inches square at the bottom and 1 foot 10 inches 
liigh. About 1 fool 7 inches of tlie old sliaft remains, the 
upper part of the shaft and ilie head was reljuilt ])\ (lie 
lale Vicar, the Rev. J. Llewellyn. 



10 



Abergavenny Deanery, South West. 



BETTWS NEWYDD. 
A broached octagonal shaft on a very handsome square 
base, having on its sides, 1 — St. George's Cross ; 2 — St. 
Andrew's Cross ; 3 — A large quatrefoil ; 4 — Two small 
([uatrefoils. It stands (jn three steps in the churchyard, 
and on the South side of the Church of Bettws Newydd, 
near Usk. 



BRYNGWYN 

Has a restored chui-chyard cross on the South side of the 
Chm-ch. The base is ancient, with the usual broached 
corners. It is 2 feet 8 inches square and 1 foot 9 inches 



GOYTREY. 

Remains of a cross on South side of Church. About 2 feet 
of the original shaft broached. The base is 3 feet square 
and 2 feet high, and is by no means of ancient appearance. 
The steps have been removed. The lowest one must have 
been 12 feet square by the line still remaining. 



KEMEYS COMMANDER. 

Remains of a cross on South side of Church, once on three 
ste})s. The steps arc now all broken and overgrown by 
grass. The lower step, 7 feet 8 inches square, with hollow 
moulding. The base with hole for shaft is lying near ; it 
is 2 feet 8 inches square, with cliamfered comers. 



«^ur4pard <SvoX^e/.^Wr^«6enn^Bemei-g U^^.^■^'l^^^t. 







T^^OSTREY 



€?7(r) 



11 



LLANARTH. 



Four well proportioned steps on the South side of the 
Church, respectively II, 8, 6, and 4 feet 8 inches square; 
and 12, 11, 10, and 9 inches high. They are surmounted 
by the ancient base broached at the corners, 3 feet 2 inches 
square and 2 feet high. A modern square shaft with an 
Irish head has been fixed in the old base. 



LLANGATTOCK-JUXTA-USK. 

About 6 feet 5 inches of the original shaft, mounted on 
four hexagonal steps, 6, 5, 3 feet 10 inches, and 2 feet 
11 inches long, and 16, 13, II, and 10 inches high. The 
top of the cross is modern. 



LLANOVER. 

A handsome base and part of shaft, standing on four steps 
much bi'oken, on South side of Church. The shaft, of 
which -4 feet 7 inches remain, is octagonal and broached. 
The base, 2 feet 10 inches square and 2 feet 6 inches high, 
is cut off at the cornei-s and nicely moulded. The steps 
are i-espectively 11, 8, 6, and 4 feet square, and 16, I-I, 12, 
and 10 inches high. 



LLANVAIR KILGEDIN. 

Base and about 2 feet 6 inches of shaft, mounted on four 
rough steps broken and worn. The base is 2 feet 9 inches 
square and 2 feet 4 inches high. The lowest step, which is 
hollowed out to serve as a seat, is 1 1 feet square. The four 
steps are 6 feet 4 inches high. 



12 

LLAXFIHANaEL-JUXTA-USK, ok GOBION. 

A handsome base aud four steps on South side of Church. 
The former, 1 foot 8 inches square and 2 feet high. The 
whole height of steps 4 feet -It inches. The h)west hoHowed 
out for a seat. The wliok* much worn and broken. 



MAMHILAi). 

A handsome broached octagonal base on three steps, which 
are imbedded in earth and grass. There are no remains of 
the shaft. It stands on the South side of the Church in a 
most ancient and interesting churchyard, surrounded hv 
twelve vew trees. 



LLAXSAINTFFRAED. 
F'ouR steps and a s(juare base carry part of the ancient 
octagonal shaft, to which a modern floriated cross has been 
atHxed. The base is 2 feet 9 inches square, 1 foot 1(J inches 
high, three- of the steps are 8 feet, 5 feet 10 inches, and 
4 feet square, and 12, Ki, and 7 inches high, the lowest 
step, which is not included in the above measui-ements, is 
deeply h<)llf)wed undonu^ath for a seat. 



TROSTREY. 

At the West end of the Church stands a plain square base 
upon fom- good steps, the lowest one chamfered and 
moulded. A plain modern shaft and cross surmounts the 
whole. The base is 2 feet 8^ inches square, and 1 foot 

8 inches high. The steps are 11 feet 7 inches, 8 feet 

9 inches, 6 feet 3 inches, and 4 feet 4 inches square ; and 
1 foot 6 inches, 12, 10, and 7| inches high. 






UL^HTiV-.iO 




tL/VKICATrOCK VIBON ACVEL 



MlTCHEL "TR.OY 



■^OCKFIEUD 



^.\).<^. 



13 



Abergavenny Deanery, East. 



TREGARE. 

Shaft, base, and very handsome steps on South side of 
Church. Shaft and base of the usual character, but the 
three steps peculiar and the lower one pannelled in three 
diA'isions. The steps apparently of later date than the 
other parts. They are in a very dilapidated condition, and 
quite thrown out of the horizontal line. The shaft is 3 feet 
5 inches high, the base 1 foot 7 inches, the steps 1 foot 

5 inches, 10 inches, and 9^ inches. The base is 2 feet 
2 inches square, and the steps respectively 8 feet 10 inches, 

6 feet, and 4 feet. 



LLANTILIO CRESSENEY. 

A large base broached standing on four steps, the lowest 
one bevilled underneath. The whole much weather worn. 
It is on the North side of the Church. The base is 2 feet 
6 inches high and 4 feet 5 inches square. The steps, 
12 feet 6 inches, 10 feet 6 inches, 8 feet 6 inches, and 
6 feet 6 inches square. 



CWMCARVON. 

Five handsome steps formed of large blocks of stone 
support a large square base, the corners of which are 
squared and broached and ornamented with moxddings, the 



u 

lower part having a set-off. Its strength and beauty show 
that an unusually important shaft and head once surmounted 
it. These remains stand on the South side of the Church. 
The base is 2 feet 8 inches high and 3 feet 4 inches square. 
The five steps, respectively 1 foot 3 inches, 1 foot 2 inches, 
1 foot, 11 inches, and 10 inches higli ; 11 feet 4 inches, 
8 feet 9 inches, 7 feet 2 inches, 5 feet 3 inches square. 



WONASTOW. 

A cross on South side of Church, with modern head, 
octagonal shaft and ancient base, on two modern ste2)s 
made of flagstones on small stones. On one side of the 
base is a niche, perhaps for relics, 1 foot 2 inches high, 
9 inches wide, and 4 inches deep. The base is 3 feet 
square and 2 feet 11 inches high. It bears an inscription 
on metal : " Restored in memory of Sir William, 8th 
Baronet of Chevet, and Dame Mary Milborne Swinnerton 
Pilkiugton, his wife." — No date. 



PENRHOS. 

A cross on the South of Church. The base, 2 feet 2 inches 
high and 2 feet 10 inches square, is the only ancient part. 
It is square, chamfered and broached at the corners with 
small ribs. This cross was restored from the designs of 
Mr. . Pritchard, Diocesan Architect, to the memory of the 
Rector's first wife, and on the base is cut the following 
inscription : — 

" To the glory of God, and iu memory 

of Alice Feetham, this cross was restored 186S." 



15 

DINGESTOW. 

A handsome cross on South side of Church. Part of the 
ancient octagonal shaft broached, stands on a good base, 
much weathered, chamfered and broached, and with panels 
cut, mounted on three steps. Height of old part of shaft, 
4 feet 5 inches. The cross is modern. Height of base, 
1 foot 8 inches ; square, 2 feet 1 inch. Height of steps, 
1 foot, 10 inches, and 9 inches. They are 7 feet 10 inches, 
6 feet 6 inches, and 4 feet 2 inches square. 



DIXTON. 

Stands on the West side of the Church. Base and shaft, 
octagonal and broached, stands upon one step. The top is 
a modern cross. About 3 feet 2 inches of the ancient shaft 
remain. Base, 1 foot | inch high and 2 feet 5 inches 
square ; step, 4 feet 7 inches square. 



LLANaATTOCK-VIBON-AVEL. 

A cross on the South of Church. Only the base is ancient. 
Shaft, head, and steps have been rebuilt. This inscription 
is cut in the base :— " To the glory of God : Restored by 
Frank and Elizabeth Mitchell, as a thankofiering for their 
happy marriage, Jan. 19, 1860." The cross was designed 
by Thomas Wyatt, Architect. 



MITCHEL TROY. 

This very beautifully proportioned cross is believed to be 
of the 14th century. The shaft is fom-sided and chamfered. 
From top tt) bottom at the comers runs a curious device of 
sometliing Hke a man's head and a shield alternately. The 



16 

shaft is 11 feet high and the steps 3 feet 2 inches. The 
present head is modern. The device on the shaft is possibly 
ball-flower ornament, very much weathered, alternately 
with shield. 



ROCKFIELD. 

This handsome modern cross on the South side of Chm-ch 
was built by the late Sir John Harding, Queen's Advocate, 
on the site of the old one. It is 16 feet high, and the shaft 
is octagonal, standing on base and three steps. Shield on 
upper base between broaches ; gules three greyhounds or 
Motto, " Praemia non praedam." Inscription on lower base. 
North side : "In honorem Dei : et in memoriam avorum : 
p.c. J.D.H. 1865." 



»£^;txYcV^"t:'ar6 Ovo£>/e«>'. l'XelI)e^"oofCavt Be2:ne-i^ <3^£c^t. 




-4 ^ 



i . ^ -t 






ITTON 











MATHER Kit . 










PENTERRY, 






i-Ml 



17 



Netherwent Deanery, East. 



I cau only find three ci'osses in this Deanery. The others 
appear to have been destroyed, root as well as branch. 



ITTON. 

Here are remains of a very curious cross, a shaft 
consisting of a pillar formed of four half-rounds. This 
shaft is 9 inches square and 4 feet high. It stands on the 
South side of Itton Churcli. 



MATHERNE 

Has the base of a churcliyard cross very much worn, with 
socket for shaft. It has been moved from its original place 
on the South of Matherne Church, and is now in the yard 
of the old Episcopal Palace of Matherne, doing duty as 
a cistern to a ^Dump. The foundation and steps in the 
churchyard were destroyed in order to make room for 
the grave (if General Williams. 



PENTERRY. 

The Ijase and part of a shaft stands on South side of 
Penterry Church, on a mound under a thorn tree. The 
base is oblong, 2 feet 2 inches by 1 foot 10 inches, and 
slopes. The shaft is 2 feet 8 inches high, and is octagonal 
and broached. 



18 



Netherwent Deanery, Middle. 



caerwp:nt. • 

This is part of the broken head of a cross, but whether the 
churchyard or the village cross, is not known. It is kept at 
Mr. Till's, of the Great house in the village of Caerwent, 
and he bought it for one shilling from a cottager who 
found it in her garden. The face represents the crucifixion, 
with S. Mary and S. John. The reverse has the Holy 
Child and the Virgin Mother. The latter is seated on a 
chair, her right hand on the Child's shoidder ; her left, a 
very large one, grasping the stem of a flower. The Child 
is standing on the arm of the chair, and is clothed in a long 
dress. On one end of the head is a figure which probably 
represents a Bishop, with staff and book. The carving on 
the opposite end is undecipherable. Owing to its weather 
worn condition, the whole appeared in a state of dire 
confusion, and it was only after some hom-s of careful 
cleaning that the above could be made out. The head is 
1 foot 2 inches high, and 1 foot 1 inch wide, and 7 inches 
across. 



PENHOW. 

This has been a veiy fine cross. The remains consist of 
three steps, 2 feet 2 inches high, 1 foot 2 inches, and 
6 inches. They are 10, 8, and 6 feet square. The lowest 
step is remarkably high and handsome. A large yew 
tree grows out of the highest step. It is said that the 



Kell;)cY<oo£^>i. .Bc^'xaicrK) iXy^bbU 



HEAD OF CROSS FOUND AT CAERWE-NT 




FACE or CROSS WITH FlGvURPS 
OF OUR UORD , S. MARY AND S.OQHN. 




SKD OF CROSS 

BVSHOP \V>Tl-» STAFF 
AMD BOOK ? 




Reverse or cross with 

S.MARV /!i.tsiO THe CHIV-U, 




LHD OF CROSS 
UNDECIPHERABLE 



a-^io) 



19 

cross fell down about 200 years ago, and the yew tree was 
planted by the grandfather of a sexton who is buried near 
it. The steps and the yew tree are on the South side of 
the Church. 



SUDBROOK (Holy Tkinitv). 

Near Portskewett stand the ruins of the ancient Chapel of 
Sudbrook or Southbrook, and in the churchyard is the base 
of a cross of very good design, broached and chamfered at 
the corners, and of the usual 14th century type. The 
drawing is copied from one by J. E. Lee, Esq., F.S.A., 
printed in the " Description of the Churches of Runstou, 
Sudbrook, Dinham, and Llanbedr," Ijrought out by the 
Caerleon and Monmouthshire Antiquarian Society in 1858. 



LLANVIHANGEL ROGIET 

Has three steps very much broken, on the South side of 
the Church. The lowest is extremely high. Large blocks 
of stone form these steps, which are 2 feet, 1 foot 5 inches, 
and 1 foot 2 inches high, and 9 feet 6 inches, 6 feet 
4 inches, and 4 feet square. The base has been cut in half 
and built into the N.W. and S.W. corners of the tower 
buttresses. It is 2 feet high. 



REDWICK (St. Thomas's). 

Square base of the old churchyard cross. It formerly 
stood near the wall of the churchyard, but was moved by 
the Rev. Pitt Eykyn because it had been worn down as a 



20 

stepping stone. It is now near the chancel. It nieasm'es 
1 foot high and 2 feet 2 inches square. The shaft socket 
is 10 inches deep. 



UNDY. 

On the South side of Chui'ch is a base and part of a very 
handsome and peculiar shaft, with a kind of canopy work 
upon it. The base is of the usual kind, chamfered and 
broached at the four comers, but sloped in the uj^per part 
in a peculiar manner and diWded by ribs. It is inserted 
and partly buried in a very large grassy step, apparently 
the lowest of three. Probably the others were removed 
for building purposes. The base is 1 foot 6 inches high 
and 2 feet 10 inches square ; the shaft, 2 feet 6 inches high. 
The grass step, 10 feet square and 1 foot 6 inches high. 



MAGOR. 

Remains of a cross on South side of Church. The base and 
two broken steps each a foot high, 8 feet 6 inches, and 
5 feet 6 inches square. An evergreen is j^lanted where the 
shaft ought to be. It was planted by a Mr. Churchwarden 
Hodges, about the year 1832. 



PORTSKEWETT. 

Near the path on the North East side of Chm-ch stands an 
octagonal shaft, chamfered and broached on a much worn 
base square and broached. Seven feet of the fine old shaft 
still remains. The base is 2 feet high and 2 feet 9 inches 
square. It rests ujjon a handsome flight of five steps, 16, 
15, 12, 11, and 9 inches high ; and 13 feet 6 inches, 11 feet, 
8 feet 6 inches, 6 feet 8 inches, and 4 feet 6 inches square. 
This is a remarkably fine specimen. 








SUDBROOK 



PENHOW. 




.v\\«^WS^^ 



>-«=.^ 




LLANVIWKNGEU 







:n ■■t-ir,.-..-v-^ 

MAGOR . 







Pary OV ©uo 






S. BRVDE'S 



^.l;.09. 



21 

S. BRIDE'S 

Churchyard cross stands close to the entrance gate of the 
chui'chyard. The base only is ancient and measures 1 foot 
6 inches high and 2 feet 9 inches square. About two feet 
of the original shaft lies near it. On the preaching step is 
this inscription : " Restored to the glory of God, and to 
commemorate the jubilee of a good Queen's reign, June 
20, 1887." This was done by the Rev. J. R. Jones, the 
Rector, who resigned in 1891. 



22 



Netherwent Deanery, West. 



BISHTON. 

On the North side of the Church is a square stone, lialf 
buried- iu the earth. It is of oolite, much weathered aud 
worn. The shaft is broken off at the base, which is 2 feet 
7 inches square. 



CAERLEON. 

On the South side of the Church are the remains of a cross, 
consisting of a square base, 2 feet high, with the corners 
chamfered off, and part of the ancient octagon shaft which 
at present carries a lamp. 



KEMEYS INFERIOR. 

On the high ground of the churchyard, to the South of the 
Church, is the base of a cross. It is of octagonal form, 
broached at four corners. The turf had to be scraped off 
in order to render it visible. Against the Cliurch wall an old 
stone was found ; this proved to be a gable cross, and had 
probably been placed on the hip knob of the Church or 
chancel after one of the alterations or restorations of the 
building. On further examination it appeared to have been 
carved out of the head of the churchyard cross, the crucitix 
is roughly cut on one side and S. Mary on the other. What 
remains of the stone is 19 inches high and 10 inches wide. 
In this Church in the beginning of this centmy 200 skuUs 
were found under tlie rood loft staircase, and also the image 
of our Lord in wood belonging to the rood. This image is 
now in Caerleon Museum. 



II-barcbgaYb (t'^Q0e^- i^^tl)^^'^^*^^ "B^Anzr^^ ^i(¥t- 














: ^^^^sV,-,: 







i^.^2^. 







Mr 



'•■■"*v}k«j 



v.,^^^<^i: 



^VvCv-"^- 







ri:j§-"'.4»»|*~'Sl.S*^ 



vt-^u^RECH^"■A 



"^L'^ ^v\.u«./' 




^^.v 



WlUtRlCK 



I 
% 



M- 



■a. 






LIANNVFK.H 




23 

LLANHENOG. 

A handsome base with ribbed corners, 2 feet 6 inches 
square and 2 feet high. It bears part of the ancient shaft, 
and is on its original site, but was mounted on two steps 
by the. late Sir Digby Mackworth, of Glanusk, about 
A.D. 1840. 



LLANWERN. 

A base deeply sunk in the ground on the South side of the 
Church. It is broached at the corners, but much damaged, 
and is 2 feet 5 inches square. It carries part of the ancient 
octagonal shaft, 4 feet 6 inches high, and stands near the 
tower. 



LLANFRECHFA. 

Base of a cross on the South side of the Church. It is 
quite plain and much iujm-ed by pieces having been broken 
off to sharpen scythes with. A very old inhabitant of this 
parish told me that this stone stood inside the Church for 
many years, and that all her childi-en were baptized out of 
its cavity. It was afterwards replaced beside the Chm-ch 
pathway, and in 1881 was mounted on thi-ee steps and made 
the base of a veiy handsome memorial cross. 



WILCRICK. 

The base of a cross with hole for shaft, now filled by a 
modern shaft carrying a sundial. It stands just inside the 
churchyard gate, near the West end of the Church. The 
base is bevilled and cut off at the corners. It is 2 feet 
6 inches square and 1 foot 4 inches high. 



24 

GOLDCLIFF. 

A fine base and shaft, much worn, on South side of Chm-ch. 
The steps, probably four- in number, have been overlaid 
with rubbish and turf, forming a mound about 4 feet high. 
The shaft is octagonal, about three feet of it is left. The 
base is square with broached comers, 1 foot 10 inches high 
and 2 feet .3 inches square. 



^5 



Usk Deanery, East. 



LLANDENNY. 

A handsome base on three steps on South side of Llandenny 
Church. The shaft and head are modern. A metal on the 
base bears this inscription : " To the glory of God, and in 
loving memory of Richard, 2nd Baron Raglan. On Easter 
Day, 1884, the last occasion he worshipped in this Church, 
he expressed a desire to restore this cross. This intention, 
frustrated by his sudden death, was carried out by his wife 
and children, 1884." 

The base is well moulded and broached, and is 2 feet 
4 inches square and 1 foot 6 inches high. The steps are 
respectively, 10 feet, 8, and 6 feet square ; and 13, 11, and 
10 inches high. 



LLANISHEN. 

The remains of a cross on the South side of the Church 
consist of two steps, respectively 5 feet and 7 feet 8 inches 
square, and 11 and 12 inches high. An imperfect thii-d 
step exists, 10 feet square. Six feet of the shaft remain ; 
the shaft is octagonal and broached at the bottom, which is 
1 foot 1 inch square. It is fixed much lower in the step 
than appears in the drawing, which is arranged to show the 
broaches. The base was removed at some period, and the 
shaft was then placed deeply in the step instead of in its 
proper place. 



26 

LLANGOVAN. 

A handsome flight of five steps, respectively 12^, 13, 11, 
10, and 9 inches high ; and 12 feet, 10, 7 feet 9 inches, 
(5 feet, and -1 feet 2 inches square. The base of the cross 
is broached, 2 feet 1 inch high, and 2 feet 7 inches square. 
6^ feet of the shaft remains. 



LLAXFIHANGEL TOR-Y-MYNYDD. 

Two good steps of large blocks of stone, and a thuxl only 
on one side owing to the inequality of the ground. The 
higher step is 7 feet square and 1 foot 3 inches high ; the 
lower step is 9 feet 6 inches square and 1 ioot -1 inches 
high. The base has been removed as well as the shaft. 
These remains are on the South side of the Church. 



KILGWRRAVG. 

A plain stone cross on South side of the Chui'ch. It is cut 
(jut of one block of plum-pudding stone, and has never been 
destroyed, probably owing to the absence of any figm-e on 
it. It is 7 feet high and the arms 1 foot 6^ inches wide. 
The shaft is 8^ inches wide at the base and 7 inches at the 
top. It is fixed in a base which is 2 feet 10 inches square. 



WOLVES NEWTON. 

ThkivE handsome steps much damaged, respectively 12 feet 
6 inches, 10 feet 6 inches, and 8 feet 6 inches square ; and 
12 inches, 12 inches, and 11 inches high. The lowest step 
has a set-off. The fom-th and topmost step has been 
removed. The base is chamfered and broached. It is 
2 feet 1 1 inches square and 2 feet high. Four feet of the 
old shaft remain. This cross is on the South side of 
Wolves Newton Church. 



«^J)itfcl)g8r-:^'ib €:Yo^^e/ tl^k Bes:^ty^ &-^p%. 



Vdil^s-- 




RAGLAN 



^.yj.co. 



27 



PEN-Y-CLAWDD. 

A cross on the South side of the Chui-cli, restored from the 
design of Henry Prothero, Esq. The base is ancient and 
has the old mortice, but only the lowest step is old. The 
restoration has been effected in the ancient manner, with a 
well-cut iigure on the cross, and is very superior to most 
modern so-called restorations, which are generally as 
different as possible from the original. 



TRELLECK. 

A handsome base on five stone steps in fair condition. The 
upper part of tlie shaft is modern, as may be seen by the 
rapid tapering of it. This must liave been formerly a very 
remarkable and beautiful cross. The remains stand on the 
South side of the Church. 



PENALT. 

A handsome base on three steps on the South side of 
Penalt Chm-ch. 



RAGLAN. 

A very handsome base mounted on four steps on South side 
of the Church. The steps are respectively 12 feet, 9 feet 
9 inches, 8 feet, and 6 feet square. Tlie interesting carved 
base has a cavity for relics. It is finely broached, and is 
y feet 3 inches square and 2 feet 1 1 inches high. Tlie top 
is modern. 



28 



Usk Deanery, West. 



GWERXESNEY. . 

In the North-west part of the churchyard i.s the base of a 
cross with hole for shaft. It is nicely moulded at the 
corners, and is 2 feet 5 inches square and 1 foot 6 inches 
high. 



LLANDDEWI-VACH. 

An octagon base on the South-west of the Church, 2 feet 
square at the bottom and 1 foot 7 inches from the ground. 
It is not in the original site, and was once used as a font 
inside the Church. 



LLANGIBBY. 

One step, 12 feet 10^ inches square, is all that is left. It 
is on the South side of the Church. A Scotch tir grows 
out of the earth and tm*f on the sui-face. 



LLANTRISSENT. 

This cross stands on the South side of the Churcli, and 
consists of a modern cross smiuounting a square modem 
sliaft, resting on the ancient base, which is chamfered at 
the corners. It has four very dilapidated steps, 12 feet 
inches, 10, 8, and 6 feet square. The base is 'S feet 
square and 2 feet high. 



fi^u¥ct;^ayi> ^vo^stp tt^Jt Beiincy:n'^S'^e5t. 







I 



29 

TREDUNNOCK. 

Two feet i inches of a broached shaft, set m octagonal 
stone on a square block, with rounded comers. 2 feet 
7 inches square, 1 foot 10 inches high. Steps, probably 
three, but they are covered by a green bank. It is on the 
South side of the Church. 



USK. 



A })Iain square liase, with a mortice for the shaft, is all that 
is left of the old cross in Usk churchyard. It stands on 
the North side of the Chui'ch, and is 3 feet square. 



30 



Newport Deanery. 



HENLLY8. 

A square broached base, much weathered. It has a small 
portion of an octagonal shaft, and stands upon foui- good 
steps, the lowest bevilled and hollowed to serve as a seat. 
The base is 2 feet 8 inches square and 1 foot 10 inches 
high. The steps are 1 foot 8 inches, 1 foot 2 inches, 
12 inches, and -i inches high. The topmost step, -4 feet 
9 inches square. 



LLANVIHANGEL-LLANTARNAM. 

A very handsome square base, with corners cut and rounded. 
A great deal of the shaft remains, and is surmounted by a 
ball, substituted, it is needless to say, in modern times, for 
the cross. It is mounted on four well proportioned steps, 
and stands on the South side of the Church. 



MARSHFIELD. 

A base standing on South side of Church. It is octagonal 
and has a quatrefoil carved in one of the panels, but all 
the work is indistinct and weather-worn. It is 2 feet high 
and 2 feet 10 inches across ; it carries 13 inches of the old 
shaft. There are no traces of steps. 



S. BRIDE'S, WENTLOOG. 

The site of tliis cross is on the South side of the fine old 
Church of S. Bride's. It is a square of turf, measuring 
13 feet, with a stone in the centre, 2 feet 8 inches square. 



^bvvrcbp^r^ tto^^^p XnHte^port ^^s-'n'^WJ 







Heklly.s 




^-^^ 



-^N. 












u^Nn^^s^Gt'L llahtk^mam 



.>AU ' . . j\ ^^U ••^V*'' 




J.M..-.V 






S. BRIDE,? , NNEHTUOOG 







.^vvv-^/:;; 



'^y. 



y 



5, ^AELLOH'S 



,-,^- 





Hw»»-^^ 



MACHEK 



BEDVVAS 



€009. 



31 



The size of it shows that a large and probably handsome 
erection stood here. Most likely a fine flight of steps 
supported the cross. 



S. MELLON'S. 

A square base on South side of Churcli. It is chamfered 

at the coi'ners and much worn. It carries 2 feet 8 inches 

of the original octagonal broached shaft, and is 2 feet 
4 inches square. 



MACHEN. 

Part of a shaft fixed in a base, which has probably been 
tampered with, as it is sloped in an unusual manner. It 
stands on two steps on the South side of the Church. The 
base is 2 feet 1 inch square and 1 foot 8 inches high. The 
shaft 2 feet 10 inches high. The steps are 7 feet and i feet 
1 inches square ; and 1 foot 6 inches and I foot i inches 
high. 



RISCA. 

A square base, 1 foot 2 inches high, with the corners broken 
off. It bears 2 feet 9 inches of the ancient shaft, chamfered 
and broached. All much weather-woi'n. On South side 
of Church. 



BEDWAS. 

A very handsome octagonal base, with three ball flowers on 
each panel. About 18 inches of the shaft remain. The 
shaft is four-sided but not square, two sides being 8 inches 
wide, and two 1-1 inches. The remains of this cross arc close 
under the wall of the South side of the Church, but it is 
probably not on the original site as it stands loose, and is 
said to have been often carried round the Church by an old 
man for a bet. 



32 



The 
Wayside Crosses of Monmouthshire. 



MARKET CEOSS, GROSMONT. 

The base of a market cross in the viEage of Grrosmont. 
It is under a modern roof of no interest. It is much 
weather-worn and has a quatrefoil ornament, but has been 
displaced and is evidently not in proper position. It is 
4 feet 2 inches high and i feet broad at the top. 



STOW HILL, NEWPORT. 

The base of a cross on the wall of the causeway on Stow 
Hill, opposite Havelock Street. It formerly stood on the 
other side of Stow Hill, close to a house called, from that 
cii-cmnstance. Cross House, but its original site is not 
certainly known. It is probably a wayside cross, and is 
severely weather-worn. The height of the base is 2 feet 
from the wall on which it rests to the shaft, and the width 
of the top of it is 2 feet 7 inches. 



MONMOUTH. 

The base of a cross in the street near over Monnow Church. 
There was another in White Cross Street oj)posite Dixton 
Road, and another in or near S. Mary's churchyard. 



W\BiX^^\ht ^^X'C^^^^p ^if^onmottX^^Vilre 




MARKET CROSS, GROSMOWr 




isA 



^* 









'. STOW'HtUL,^'^-^*'-'^'^ 



k;)onmouth 




^<!(?V^ 






-«'.'>l.- 





CKOK KYRlGi 






CROES UKS 



CRO£& LtWYOD 



^\)iV 



33 

ABERGAVENNY. 

The base of a cross near the Parish Church, but outside 
the churchyard. It formerly stood at the cross roads. 
It is niucli weather-worn, but is handsomely broached at 
the corners, and has a mortice for the shaft. It is 3 feet 
square and 2 feet high. N.B. — Since this was written it 
has been removed into the churchyard, and wiU probably 
bq^ mistaken in future for the churchyard cross. 



MAGUR. 

The base of the village cross, rescued from the miU pond 
by the Rev. T. Pitt Eykyn, and re-christened and placed 
in the churchyard for safety. It had been laid down half 
in the water to conceal the entrance of a horrible sewer, 
which had no business to be emptpng into the village pond. 
It is an octagonal stone with the shaft socket cut in deeply. 
(Jld peo})le can remember it standing opposite the Wheat 
Sheaf Iim, where the chesnut tree now grows. It is 2 feet 
10 inches high and 3 feet square at the bottom. 



REDWICK. 

A base and part of the shaft of a wayside cross, which 
formerly stood by the road about 200 yards away from 
Redwick Church towards Whitsun. The Rev. Pitt Eykyn, 
when Vicar of Redwick, had it removed into the churchyard 
for safety, as it was being used for a kerbstone and pieces 
were broken off. The base is 1 foot 6 inches high and 
2 feet broad at the top. AVliat remains of the shaft is 
2 feet 3 inches high. 



;54 

PENALT. 

The square base of a cross on the cross roads between 
Monmouth and Penalt Chui-ch, and Trelleck and Penalt 
Church. It is chamfered at the top, and is 8 feet square 
and 2 feet hiyh. It has mortice for shaft. 



TINTEUN PAKVA. 

This base of a wayside cross is situated near the Tintern 
Parva Church, by the side of a lane. It has a mortice for 
shaft and is broached at the corners, but is much broken 
and defaced. It is 1 foot 9 inches square and 1 foot 
2 inches high. 



CKU8S KYRIG. 

The base of a cross on the left hand side going from 
Raglan to Usk. It is tlius mentioned in a letter from the 
late Rev. Arthur Wyatt to the late John E. W. Rolls, Esq., 
dated Sept. 4th, 1867 :— 

" This cross, now standing in a cottage garden and commonly 
called White Cross, has been removed within the memory of a man 
still living, aged 88 j'ears. It formerly formed part of Kyrig or 
Doves Cross, the foot of which may still be seen on the road from 
Eaglan to Usk opposite Blue Broom, which in my informant's early 
days went by the name of Las House." 

With all deference to Mr. Wyatt's opinion, 1 must beg 
to differ from it ; inasmuch as the stem of Cross Llwydd, 
which was shown to me in a cottage garden for tlie White 
Cross mentioned in this letter, could not by any means have 
fitted into the mortice of tlie base opposite the house known 
as lilue Broom, being a great deal to(j large. The base is 
a s(|uare stone chamfered at the top. 



3,5 

CROSS CAREG. 

A handsome base at the junction of three roads in the 
Pai'ish (jf Penrhos. It is clianifered at the corners ; the 
sides batter slightly, and there is a socket for the shaft. 
It is 2 feet 3 inches square at the foot, and 1 foot lU^ inches 
across the top ; and 2 feet 2^ inches high. This is a veiy 
elegantly shaped base. 



CROSS LAS. 

A base and one step in a field amongst trees and long grass, 
near a lane about three miles South-west of Raglan. The 
shaft has been broken off, not taken out of the socket. 
The base is 2 feet 7 inches square and 1 foot high. The 
step, 3 feet 4 inches by 3 feet 2 inches square, and 10^ 
inches high. 



CROSS LLWYDD. 

A cnjss in a cottage garden behmging to a cottage on Cross 
Llwyd Farm, about a mile and a half South-west of Raglan. 
It is the White Cross alluded to under the head of Cross 
Kyrig. It is a thick shaft with a diamond shaped head 
moulded all round and hollowed out in the lower part. 
A cross is carved upon it. It is the only wayside cross I 
have found with a head. The shaft is 5 feet 6 inches from 
the bottom to the collar ; 2 feet 3 inches below the ground. 
It is thick and moulded and the same width all the way up, 
but chipped at the bottom, no doubt in separating it from 
the base. The head is 2 feet high and 1 foot 8 inches wide. 
The whole cross, head and sliaft, has be(^n whitewashed. 
Miss Crawley writes, " I give the account of the cross to 
you as it was detailed to us by Mr. Jeffreys, the present 



ye 

owner (jf Cross Llwyd Farm. A man living at tlie Blue 
Broom moved it from the base at the cross roads to his 
garden ; from that moment he liad no luck with anything ; 
his animals died, &c. ; he attriljuted his misfortunes to his 
having sacriligiously taken possession of the cross, so 
carried it out of his garden and cast it down on a piece of 
waste ground. Mr. Farr, a pig- jobber, afterwards built a 
couple of cottages, and enclosed the waste and with it the 
cross." 



RUCKFIELD. 

This is a wayside cross standing in a plantation of spruce 
firs at the junction of the Abergavenny and Hereford roads. 
It formerly stood in the churchyard, and was removed to 
its present position in 1865, on the erection of the present 
handsome churchyard cross by Sir John Dorney Harding. 
The shaft is octagonal. It is a plain cross, neatly chamfered. 



TRELLECK STONE. 

This wayside cross is on the road from Trelleck to 
Chepstow. It is still used as a "Resting Cross" by all 
funerals that pass by it. The bearers cany the corpse 
from S. to N. and resting the coffin on the step on the West 
side, change bearers and proceed to the Church, which is 
about half a mde distant. 



CROSS VAEN. 

A wayside cross on a bank near four cross roads, the 
Raglan, Skenfrith, Abergaveiniy, and ]\Ionmouth. Nothing- 
is ancient but the base Avhich was found under the steps of 



Hls:p5\>:;C Ir^u^^ "'^n Aionn\-nttbdn^x 







:^ — 






fe^-S^f-XSl 



"'^-vwx'-'tei'' , \ 






'L. 



Tt<El,l,»CCK 





THE MAVPOJ-E 




AD OF CROSS 
FOUNQ AT 

TH£ PANX 







SKENFRITH WAYSIDE CROSS ANO BRIDGE ■ 



^\)(^ 



:J7 

the cottage close by. This cottage is called the Boxbush 
from a yew cut into the shape of boxes at its entrance, but 
its old name is Croes Vaen, or Stone Cross. The old 
thatched and white-washed Ijuilding has been pulled down, 
and a new house built on its site. The cross was restored 
by John E. W. Rolls, Esq., of the Hencb-e. 



THE MAY-POLE. 

This base of an old wayside cross stands at a place called 
the May-pole, near S. Manghan's. It looks as if it had 
been moved, perhaps from the three cross ways adjoining. 
It is a square weather-worn stone, and a few inches of the 
shaft remain. 



HEAD OF CROSS AT THE PANT. 

This rough stone crucifix with figures, probably of S. Mary 
and S. John, gives us some idea of what the heads of the 
ancient ci'osses were like. It was found on a farm called 
the Pant, near the Church of Llanfihangel Ysterne 
Llewenie, and was bought by John E. W. Rolls, Esq., of 
the Hendre, Monmouth, where it is at present carefully 
kept. It has been in its present place more than 38 yeai's, 
and it is im^^ossiblc to tell to what base and shaft it 
belonged. 



SKENFRITH WAYSIDE CROSS AND BRIDGE. 

Near Skenfrith Cluu-ch was a bridge of two arches crossing 
a small stream. In the centre was the base of an old cross. 
The whole fell down in 1S82 and was broken up. 



S 

< 


o 

be 


CO 

o 
u 
o 




a 
o 




^ 


c 




o 


V 


C 




IS 

o 
a 


he 


.-2 


-3 


V 

o 

en 


.-1 


•a 




CD 


3 
tn 


D 


iJ 


nt 


2 


J2 


J2 


> 


X! 


"o 






e; 






13 




S 


td 


<u 


lU 


tu 


_>> 


*'"' 




J3 


-4-1 


o 


3 


o 


lu 




^4H 






'U4 


H 


O 




c 


'X 






c 


^ 




u 


W 


a 
o 


o 


en 


13 


S 


> 


u 


^ 


rt 




o 


^ 






-*-» 


^ 


K 


(^ 


en 


j!i 


O 

o 


o 


0) 




•v 




2 


"en 


J2 


o 


(U 


^ 


"rt 


en 


H 




J3 


o 
o 


u 


.^ 


IL. 


."^ 


X! 


3 


o 


C 


Si 


en 

1) 

tn 


O 


13 
U 


u 
o 


u 

eU 




T^ 


a 


> 


a 



38 

CALDICOT, NEAR CHEPSTOW. 

In Caldicot Village a cross existed which had a timber pent 
house or j^ulpit where John Wesley once preached. He 
notes in his diary this preaching at Caldicot. I have been 
unable to find any representation of the fonn of this cross. 
Sad to say the whole was removed on the pretext that it 
formed a gossiping place for the village, duiing the 
incumbency of the Rev. E. Turberville Williams. 



CROSS PHILIP JACK, near ABERGAVENNY. 

A cross once existed here, but nothing is remembered of it 
but a heap of stones. 



VERNE Y CROSS, near CALDICOT, 

Has only the name. There are no remains. 

Other names of crosses existed concerning which I have 
been unable to obtain information or to tiud the remains. 

Croes-y-Ceilog (cock), between Caerleon and 

Pont}q3ool. 
Croes-y-Giach (snipe), near Llantilio. 
Croes Elm, near Camp Llantilio. 
Croes Rheol-y-Merch (Horse Road). 
Croes Bychan. 
Croes Onen (ash tree). 
Croes Robert, near Llanover. 
Croes Howell, near Menachter. 
Hansen's Cross. 
Llanvaii" Cross. 
Cross Ash. 
Tintern Cross. 
Llanishen Cross. 

It is possible that one or two of these names may belong 
to crosses ah-eady given. 



39 

CROSS VANE. 

There was a cross at Cross Vane at the cross roads from 
the river to Monmouth, and from the Churches of Trelleck 
and Penalt, but it was broken up many years ago, and the 
stones of the base are in a wall near the Argoed. 



CWMCARVAX. 

The Rev. W. B. Oakeley informs me of the base of an old 
cross near Cwmcarvan, about 200 yards North of Lower 
Cwm Farm, fixed in the bank of the old lane running South 
to Cwmcarvan Hill, and North-west towards Cwmcarvan 
Church, which is about half a mile distant. 

It is a rough stone, 2 feet 10 inches by 2 feet 6 inches 
on surface of base, and 1 foot high. It has a socket for 
shaft, 8^ inches by 9 ; the depth of which is 6 inches. 
I much regret that Mr. Oakeley's sketch reached me too 
late for insertion. 



40 



Restored Crosses. 



LLANFRECHFA CHUKCHYAKD CRU8S. 

Llanfkechfa chm-cliyard cross is restored as far as ])ossible 
in the ancient manner. The only ancient part is the base 
which has been repaii'ed and slightly refunded at the 
corners. On the East face of the head is the crucifixion, 
with S. Maiy and S. John under a canop}'. On the West 
face, the Visitation. The ends have respectively the lily 
and the rose. On the North side of the base is engraved, 
" To the glory of God, and in beloved memory of 
John Ethei-ington Welch Rolls, of ye Hendi-e, and Elizabeth 
Mary Rolls, his \vife, this cross was rebuilt by Frank 
Johnstone Mitcliell, of Llanfrechfa Grange, and Elizabeth 
Harcourt Mitchell, his wife, daughter of the above, a.d., 
MDCCCLXXX ; " and on the East side, " Grant them, O Lord, 
eternal rest, and let everlasting light shine upon them." 
The steps are 8, 6, and 4 feet square, and 1 foot 3 inches, 
1 foot, and 1 foot high ; the base, 2 feet 4 inches square 
and 1 foot 8 inches high ; the shaft, 8 feet 6 inches high, 
and the head, 2 feet 7 inches high and 1 foot 6 inches by 
1 foot wide. Mr. W. Clarke was the Sculptor of the head. 



MONMOUTH WAYSIDE CROSS. 

This cannot properly be called a cross, for there is no cross 
in the design. It is a canopy with fom- niches enclosing 
four very beautiful figures of S. Mary, S. Thonuis, 
S. Michael, and S. Cenhedlon, oi Purbeck marble. It wa« 



Jlt^ioreb ^ro^'^^X- 









LL^^Gu^ church^akd 




Vmm 




MOHtWOVJTH YVAVSlD£ 



^00 



41 

l)uilt by the late C. Cromjjton Roberts, Esq., Mr. F. A. 
Powell being the Architect, and Mr. Wall the Sculptor. 
The shaft is highly decorated. The ancient base, figured 
in the tirst jjage of wayside crosses, has been made use of, 
but is set a little low in the step. 



LLANGUA CHURCHYARD CROSS. 

This is placed on the page in a supplementary manner, for 
St. James's Church, Llangua, is just within the borders of 
Monmouthshire, but belongs to Kentclmrch in Herefordsliire, 
and comes not within a Monmouthshire rural deanery. It 
is a modern cross and sliaft upon the old base. Two 
shallow steps and one embedded in the grass. The cross 
and shaft, 7 feet high ; base, 2 feet i inches square and 
1 foot 2^ inches high, broached and chamfered, much 
weather-worn. Steps, 5 feet 10 inches and 4 feet 2 inches 
square, probably rebuilt as the remains were found covered 
with turf nearer the South wall of the Church. The cross 
was rebuilt by Mr. and Mrs. Mathews, of Pontrilas Court, 
in 1892. 



43 



INDEX OF PLAGES. 





PAGE 


Abergavenny 


33 


Bedwas 


31 


Bedwellty 


9 


Bishton 


22 


Bettws Newydd . . . , 


10 


Bryngwyn 


10 


Caerleon 


22 


Caerwent 


18 


Caldicot 


38 


Cross Careg 


35 


Cross Kyrig 


34 


Cross Las 


35 


Cross Llwyd 


35 


Cross Pliilip Jack 


38 


Cross Vaen 


36 


Cross Vane 


59 


Cwmcarvan 


39 


Cwwcarvou 


13 


Cwm-y-oy 


6 


Dingestow 


15 


Dixton 


15 


GoldclifE 


24 


Goytrey 


10 


Grosmont 


6, 32 


Gwernesney 


28 


Henllys 


30 


Itton 


17 


Kemeys Commander 


10 


Ken»eys Inferior 


22 


Kilgwrrwg 


26 


Llanarth 


11 


Llanddewi Ehydderch 


6 


Llanddewi Skyrrid 


7 


Llanddewi Vack .. 


28 


Llanilenuy 


25 



44 

PAGE. 

Llanfoist . . . . . . . . 7 

Llanfrechfa . . . . . . . . 23, 40 

Llangattock Lingoed . . . . . . . . 7 

Llangattock-juxta-Usk .. .. .. 11 

Llangattock- Vibon-Avel .. .. .. 15 

Llangibbj' . . . . . . . . 28 

Llangovan . . . . . . . . 26 

Llangua . . . . . . . . 41 

Llauhenog . . . . . . . . 23 

Llanhilleth . . . . . . . . 9 

Llanishen . . . . . . . . 25 

Llanover . . . . . . . 11 

Uansaintffraed . . . . . . . . 12 

Llantilio Cresseney .. .. .. 13 

Llantilio Pertholey . . . , . . . . 7 

Llantrissent . . . . . . . . 28 

Llanvair Kilgedin . . . . . . . . 11 

Llanvapley . . . . . . . . 8 

Llanvetherine . . . . . . . . 8 

Llanvihangel Eogiet .. .. .. 19 

Llanvibangel-Llantarnam . . . . . 30 

Llanfihangel Tor-y-Mynydd . . . . . . 26 

Llanfihangfil-juxta-Usk . . . . . . 12 

Llanwenarth Citra . . . . . . 8 

Llanwern . . . . . . . . 23 

Machen . , . . . . . . 31 

Magor . . . . . . . . . . 20, 33 

MamliUad .. .. .. .. 12 

Marsbfield . . . . . . . . . . 30 

Matherne . . • . • • 17 

May-pole . . . . . . • • . . 37 

Mitcbel Troy .. .. .. ' •• 15 

Monmouth . . . . . . . • . 32, 40 

Newport . . . . . • 32 

Old Castle . . . . . . • • • ■ 8 

Pant .. .. .. .. 37 

Penalt . . . . . . . . . 27, 34 

Penbow . . . . • • • • 18 

Penrbos . . . . • • • • '4 

Penterry . . . . . . • • 17 

Pen-y-Clawdd .. .. .. ..27 

Portskewett . . . . . . • • 20 



45 



Raglan 

Eedwick 

Eisca 

Rockfield 

Skenfrith . 

S. Bride's, 

S. Bride's, 

8. Mellon's 

Sudbrook 

Tintern Parva 

Tredunnock 

Tregare 

Trelleck 

Trelleck Stone 

Trevethin 

Trostrey 

Undy 

Usk 

Verney Cross 

Wilcrick 

Wolves Nowton 

Wonastow 



Netherwent 
Wentloog . 





PAGE 




, , 


27 




19 


33 

31 


•• 


16, 


36 
37 
21 
30 
31 
19 
34 
29 
18 
27 
36 
9 
12 
20 




•• 


29 
38 
23 
26 
14 



1_>J.^ A T A^AVhJX XX V^X V^JX 



Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 




Form L9-50m-ll,'50 (2554)444 



THE LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



■*•:•• 





^^WV^^^fe: